Glossary and abbreviations

A&E Accident and Emergency
Age standardisation Rate of morbidity (disease) and mortality (death) vary with age and gender. This means that caution is needed when comparing mortality or morbidity rates in populations that have different age structures. One way round this is to adjust or standardise the mortality or morbidity rates to take account of differences between the age structure of the populations. The two main methods of standardisation are Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) (also called indirect standardisation) and Age Standardised Rates (also called direct standardisation). The main type of age standardisation used in the JSNA is the directly standardised rate (DSR).
AAACM All age all cause mortality
APHO Association of Public Health Observatories
ASB Anti-social behaviour
BME Black and minority ethnic groups
BMI Body mass index. It is calculated as weight/height2
CAMHS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services
CHD Coronary heart disease
Commissioning A continuous cycle of activities that contribute to the securing of services, including the specification of services to be delivered, contract negotiations, target setting, monitoring and managing performance.
Confidence Interval (CI) Quantifies the uncertainty in measurement. It is the range of values within which we can be 95% sure that the true value for the whole population lies.
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CVD Cardio-vascular disease
Dental caries A disease that damages tooth structures, resulting in what is commonly called tooth decay or cavities, which are holes in the teeth.
DH / DoH Department of Health
Directly standardised rate (DSR) The age-specific rates of the subject population are applied to the age structure of the standard population. This gives the overall rate that would have occurred in the subject population if it had the standard age-profile. The standard population most commonly used is the European Standard population, however other populations can be used. The rate is commonly expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 population.
DPH Director of Public Health
DWP Department of Work and Pensions
Elective admission A planned hospital admission
Emergency admission An unplanned hospital admission
GP General Practitioner
GUM Genito-urinary medicine
Health inequality Differences in health observed between groups due to one group experiencing an advantage over another group, rather than any innate differences between them.
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HPA Health Protection Agency
HPV Human Papilloma Virus
ICD10 International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th version)
IDU Injecting drug user
Indicator A summary measure that aims to describe, in a few numbers as much detail as possible about a system, to help understand, compare, predict, improve, and innovate.
IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation. Combines a number of indicators, chosen to cover a range of economic, social and housing issues, into a single deprivation score for each Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in England. This allows each area to be ranked relative to one another according to their level of deprivation. The most recent indices of deprivation were published by the Department of Communities and Local Government in December 2007.
Incidence The number of new cases of a disease within a given time period
JSNA Joint Strategic Needs Assessment
Key Stage Educational assessment stage
LA Local authority
LAA Local Area Agreement
LGBT Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans
Life expectancy at birth Is the average number of years a newborn would expect to live if they experience the mortality rates of the current period throughout their lifetime.
LINk Local Involvement Network
MHFA Mental Health First Aid
MMR Measles, mumps and rubella (vaccine)
Morbidity A diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause
Mortality The condition of being mortal, or susceptible to death
Mortality rate Is a measure of the number of deaths (in general or due to a specific cause) in a defined population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mosaic Geodemographic tool that segments the based their sociodemographic characteristics, needs, English population into different groups and types of people behaviours, and beliefs, based on deprivation, social and market research data.
NASCIS National Adult Social Care Intelligence Service
NCHOD National Centre for Health Outcomes Development
NCMP National Child Measurement Programme
NEET Not in education, employment and training
NHS National Health Service
NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
NSF National Service Framework
Obese Body mass index of over 30 for adults
ONS Office for National Statistics
Overweight Body mass index 25-30 for adults
PCT Primary Care Trust
Place Survey National survey carried out every two years by every local authority in England
Prevalence Is the proportion of individuals in a population who have the disease at a specific instant or during a specified period of time.
PSA Public sector agreement
PSHE Personal, social and health education
Public health The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organised efforts of society (Acheson 1988).
QOF Quality Outcomes Framework. A voluntary annual reward and incentive programme for all general practice surgeries in England. Data are collected on five (5) domains: clinical, organisation, patient care experience, additional services and holistic care.
Quintile One of five segments of a distribution that has been divided into fifths.
Rate The number of observed events per total number in whom this event might occur over a specified time period, often expressed as per 1,000 or per 100,000 (persons, male, female, children etc)
Registered population Is the population registered with a general practice constituent practice of a PCT.
Resident population Is a population with a usual address within the geographical boundary e.g. Region, LA, PCT.
SEN Special educational needs
Spearhead/Spearhead Areas The Spearhead Areas are the fifth of all areas with the highest levels of deprivation in England
SOA, LSOA Super Output Area is a unit of geography used in the UK for statistical analysis. They are developed and released by Neighbourhood Statistics. Lower Super Output Area – consists of a population of around 1500
TB Tuberculosis
VCS Voluntary and community sector
Vital Signs NHS/PCT performance management/measurement framework (including targets based on local and national priorities).
WHO World Health Organisation